S106 agreements, (See S106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, as amended), are what makes a development proposal acceptable in planning terms.
They are site specific mitigation of the impact of development. These 'developer contributions' sit alongside highway contributions and the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL).
Usually the money is paid to the District Council (and County Council) and are generally project specific, such as affordable homes, 'Public Art' or other infrastructure projects, usually contained in some sort of document such as a "Infrastructure Delivery Plan".
So, if a parish council wants some new sports equipement in a public park (say), then there maybe a pot of money available for a PC to tap into.